Under Executive Order No. 2, issued on 30 July 2010 by President Benigno S. Aquino III, the following appointments, made by former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and other appointing authorities in her administration, were considered “midnight appointments” that violate Section 15, Article VII of the 1987 Constitution* and Section 261(g) of the Omnibus Election Code,** and were thereby recalled, withdrawn and revoked:
- Those made on or after 11 March 2010, including all appointments bearing dates prior to 11 March 2010 where the appointee has accepted, or taken his oath, or assumed public office on or after 11 March 2010, except temporary appointments in the executive positions when continued vacancies will prejudice public service or endanger public safety as may be determined by the appointing authority;
- Those made prior to 11 March 2010, but to take effect after said date or appointments to office that would be vacant only after 11 March 2010; and
- Appointments and promotions made during the period of 45 days prior to the 10 May 2010 elections in violation of Section 261 of the Omnibus Election Code.
The positions covered or otherwise affected were declared vacant. The Executive Secretary was authorized to designate an officer-in-charge (OIC) until the replacement has been appointed and qualified, when designation of an OIC is necessary to maintain efficiency in public service and ensure the continuity of government operations.
* Section 15, Article VII of the 1987 Constitution states that: “Two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his term, a President or Acting President shall not make appointments, except temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public service of endanger public safety.”
** Section 261 (g) of the Omnibus Election Code considers it an election offense if a government official, during the period of 45 days before a regular election and 30 days before a special election: (1) appoints or hires any new employee, whether provisional, temporary or casual, or creates and fills any new position, except upon prior authority by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) when the position to be filled is essential to the proper functioning of the office or agency concerned, and the position will be filled in a manner that will not influence the election, and except when appointment of a new employee is urgently needed, in which case COMELEC should be notified of the appointment within 3 days from the date of appointment; or (2) promotes or gives any increase of salary or remuneration or privilege to any government official or employee, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations.
For a copy of Executive Order No. 2, click on Laws under Tools.